control, emotional regulation and emotional repertoire and Ferreira-Alves, ); The Courtauld Emotional Control Scale (CECS) is a 21 item self report. Anger Control: The seven-item subscale of the Courtauld Emotional Control Scale 18 measures anger control. Total scores range from seven to 28; higher. Evaluation of the level of Courtauld Emotional Control Scale (CECS) at women surgically treated for gynaecological reasons.
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The overall score for GSES proved that respondents had a subjective feeling of self-efficacy at the level of 29 points out of 40 points possible, which means that fourtauld self-efficacy was rather at the high level in their self-assessment.
The social and demographic features gender, group affiliation, age analyzed in the study were found to be correlated significantly with controo control of negative emotions, the level of anxiety, and self-efficacy.
The study group affiliation was a key variable conditioning the relations between the analyzed features. The elderly residents of public nursing home belonged to the group distinguishing negatively compared to other two study groups.
The study respondents were characterized by the relatively high perception of anxiety, which may be as a result of the health and social problem present in this age group. In order to improve the quality of life, the study population should reduce level of perceived anxiety and increase the control of negative emotions and self-efficacy by social integration of seniors. Population aging poses a significant challenge to public health, both in social and health aspect.
InPoles will be one of the oldest populations in Europe. The role of emotion in the genesis of lesions in somatic and psychosomatic diseases has been explained relatively well.
The expressive display of emotions is associated with a low sense of psychological distress. The sense of anxiety is another psychological feeling associated with suffering and mental discomfort, 1213 and as a psychological trait refers to individual differences in response to stressful situations, 9 as eg, comorbidity among the elderly. Anxiety is an unpleasant emotional state which encompasses physical, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms, such as, disorders of emotional regulation, especially, in interpersonal, ambiguous, and dangerous situations.
A high level of anxiety affects significantly perceived self-efficacy, because the higher the level of anxiety the elderly have, the lower the level of self-efficacy they show. The people with a low level of self-efficacy perceive potential difficulties as obstacles overgrowing their capabilities, thus they decrease their efforts or even resign from the activity.
It can be generally assumed that perceived self-efficacy is an indicator of intentions and activities within various areas of healthy behavior. Both the intention of engagement in defined healthy activities and current behavior are positively associated with beliefs about self-efficacy.
The aim of this study was to assess the level of emotion control, anxiety, and self-efficacy in the elderly aged above 60 who are inhabitants of Bialystok Poland.
In reference to the aim of the study, we formulated the following hypothesis to test via questionnaire-based study:. The level of emotion control, anxiety, and self-efficacy will be negatively characterized in the elderly aged above 60 who are inhabitants of Bialystok and will depend on the sociodemographic characteristics of respondents.
We assumed that the group characterized by the worst values were residents of a nursing home. A total of people aged above 60 — inhabitants of Bialystok and the controp — were included in the study. An additional criterion for the inclusion to the study apart from the age and place of residence was lack of dementia.
Each of the participants had to give a written consent to participate in the study and could withdraw from the study at any stage. Similarly, other exclusion criteria of the study were: The selection of respondents was purposeful. In order to have a representative study population, the authors collected completely filled surveys in each subgroup. Among the students of the UTA and the UHS, more copies of the research tools were passed, but not all distributed questionnaires were returned to the authors of the study.
CECS consists of three subscales, each of them containing seven statements regarding the way of showing anger, depression, and anxiety. The scale is used to measure subjective control of anger, anxiety, and depression in difficult situations and designed to examine adults both healthy and ill.
CECS is a tool of self-description. Summing up the scores of all three subscales, the overall score of emotion control is established. The overall indicator of emotion control is within the range of 21—84 points.
The higher the score, the greater the suppression of negative emotions. In his concept, Spielberger referred to the studies carried earlier by Cattell. STAI questionnaire consists of two independent parts, each containing 20 statements.
The level of anxiety treated as a current emotional state can be examined by using of the first part of STAI X This part of the questionnaire is a very sensitive tool and helps to follow dynamics of anxiety within short time intervals. The level of anxiety is expressed by means of points obtained via summing up the points of particular answers. The point scores for each part of the questionnaire may range from 20 to The scores of the test are interpreted in the following way: The psychometric values of the test permit researchers to use it in the group studies.
The reliability of the test examined by means of a coefficient of internal compliance ranges from 0. GSES is composed of 10 statements. The scale is designated to examine healthy and ill adults.
Each question is followed by four answers to select from: The sum of all points gives the overall indicator of self-efficacy, which is within the range of 10—40 points.
The higher the score is, the higher the level of self-efficacy respondents show. The emottional from group I and II completed the questionnaires on their own. Additional explanations and instructions were placed in every questionnaire of the scale. The group III emotiinal elderly residents of public nursing homes respondents were interviewed directly by psychologists and occupational therapists employed in this institution.
The study was performed from February to June The research conforms with the Good Clinical Practice guidelines, and the procedures followed were in conrtol with the Helsinki Declaration ofas revised in concerning the ethical principles xourtauld the medical community and forbidding releasing the name of the patient, initials, or the hospital evidence number and following the ethical standards of the institutional committee on human emotionzl.
Written informed consent was obtained from each respondent, in accordance with the Helsinki declaration. The Shapiro—Wilk test was used to assess the normality of distribution of quantity features. Since no normality of distribution was established, these features were analyzed using nonparametric methods. Two groups were compared with the Mann—Whitney U -test, and scaoe groups by means of analysis of variance and Kruskal—Wallis test together with post hoc tests.
The mean score of subjective control of anger and anxiety was 18 out of 28 points. When analyzing anxiety as a state, a score of 39—40 points suggested clinical symptoms of anxiety disorders.
Other studies showed that in the elderly, the condition was suspected with a score range of 54—55 points. The detailed data for the whole group as well as men and women are presented in Table 1. Taking into consideration the mean scores of the analyzed scales regarding the study group affiliation, the group of the participants of the UHS had the highest scores, whereas elderly residents of public nursing home had the lowest scores.
The emotuonal are presented in Table 2. The youngest respondent was 60 years old, while the oldest was 98 years old. In the study, the following statistically emotipnal differences were reported in the age groups: In Table 4the scores of GSES couftauld presented regarding the level of self-efficacy according to gender, age, and study group affiliation. No significant correlation was revealed between the score of GSES and gender.
In the youngest age group 60—69 years oldmore than half of respondents The reverse correlation was established in the oldest age group above 80 — more than half of the questioned Table 4 The level of self-efficacy in the emotiona with regard to gender, study group affiliation, and age Abbreviations: Apart from the overall scores of the scales, an attempt was made to analyze the correlations between the raw scores of the individual scales, taking into consideration social and demographic features with regard to which the respondents were analyzed.
Figure 2 presents the correlations analyzed in the study. Figure 2 Scatter diagrams of self-efficacy and age with regard to the division into study group affiliation.
The detailed scores were presented in Figure 3.
Another correlation was analyzed — between the level of self-efficacy GSES and control of negative emotions CECS based on the division of respondents into age groups. This means that the higher the self-efficacy the old aged respondents had, the better they managed anger, depression, and control of negative emotions anger, depression, anxiety. The detailed scores are shown in Figure 4.
The majority of earlier studies showing the relation between the stress in psychological terms and the suppression of negative emotions have proved a general unfavorable pattern of suppression of negative emotions. In our study, numerous statistically significant correlations were established between the control of negative emotions and the study group affiliation of respondents as well as between the control of anger, anxiety, and depression and self-efficacy.
Our studies proved that the overall score of emotion control regarding the study group affiliation equaled In the study by Glebocka et al, 27 the level of emotion control reached In the same study, differences in the scores of CECS between groups were statistically significant.
In our study, the average score of CECS was comparable with the results of the studies mentioned above 28 and that of the overall values of the Polish population Kossakowska et al 8 concluded that patients with psoriasis controlled anger, depression, and anxiety to a greater extent compared to the control group.
The authors obtained other scores in patients with vitiligo — when comparing these scores with those of healthy people, no differences in control of anger, depression, and anxiety were reported. The authors observed that patients with psoriasis controlled their anger and anxiety more, while depression control was reported at the similar level. Age is a natural factor in controlling negative emotions, 17 making control of negative emotions more intensive. In the study by Kossakowska et al, 8 age proved to be the most vital factor controlling negative emotions in patients with psoriasis.
Thus, psychological distress was greater in patients aged above The scores of STAI as a trait are very frequently associated with earlier development of anxiety disorders, such as, obsessive—compulsive disorders.