Bir giriş çalışması olan bu kitapta sosyoloji, içinde yaşadığımız değişim süreciyle ilişkili ve olabildiğince Değişen Dünyada Sosyoloji AuthorVeysel Bozkurt. Start by marking “Endüstri Sosyolojisi” as Want to Read: Want to Read by. Veysel Bozkurt Değişen Dünyada Sosyoloji (Temeler, Kavramlar, Kurumlar). Start by marking “Ekonomi Sosyolojisi” as Want to Read: Want to Read by. Veysel Bozkurt Değişen Dünyada Sosyoloji (Temeler, Kavramlar, Kurumlar).
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Siyaset ve Hukuk 94 h. Political History of Europe 6 b. History of Migration to Europe 8 2. Freedom Of Belief 53 b.
Work Life 61 c. Sheltering And Housing 68 d. Physical Violence 70 e. Verbal Abuses And Insults 80 f. Politics And Law 94 h.
Social Life i. Intervention Against Right To Life j. Yeterli siyasi temsile sahipler mi? Why are these people, who left their countries due to different reasons, here?
Why have millions of people been leaving their counties since hundreds of years? Can these migration waves be explained by only economic reasons? Or, are there other factors triggering this process? If there are, then, what is the share of Europe in that? Will the current chaos atmosphere experienced in the world, and especially in Africa and the Middle East, play a triggering role for new migration waves?
Well then, how are immigrants treated in Europe? Before anything else, is their security of life and property provided?
Do they get similar rights when they become citizens of the countries that they live sisyoloji Do they have enough political representation? Can they equally benefit from educational opportunities? Can they be hired at the rate of their knowledge and talents? Can they freely experience their beliefs and express their thoughts?
Is it allowed that they live according to their religious and cultural differences? Are they exposed to discrimination in social, political and cultural life? We made interviews with politicians, civil society organizations, academicians and immigrants.
While preparing our report, we benefited from the information, document, interview and record of observations that we gathered during out dnuada. Moreover, in construction of our report, we benefited from many international reports published before by various institutions, and from news taken place in international media regarding the subject.
The main aim of our report is to examine and bring forward the process encountered by immigrants living in Europe. If we would like that currently existing problems will not be experienced in future, this is only possible via eliminating the reasons causing these problems. We hope that our report will help the steps taken in that direction. History of Europe includes the process of people, cultures and states in Europe starting from prehistory to the present day. In The History of Herodotus, etymology of Europe is explained as follows; Europe, who was the daughter of the King of Phoenicia, was kidnapped by Zeus which was a Greek God posing as a bull, and taken to Cretan island.
It is accepted that the oldest written source of history of Europe is the Saga of Iliad written by Homeros in B. Rise of Alexander the Great followed the demise of the Veyssel city states. Veyswl the Great was the pupil of Aristotle and died in B. He, whose reign reached India starting from Macedonia, aimed to realize the ideal of a single state. Roman Empire became an effective power after Alexander the Great, and it also played an important role in shaping the history of Europe.
The period of the Roman Empire was also the time when transition from paganism to Christianity started. With removal of the Roman Empire -which could not withstand the migration of tribes- from the political arena, Middle Ages in Europe had started.
These millennial dark ages which were full of bloody wars and internal conflicts, and in which people were exposed to persecution by feudal lords continued until the 15th century. East Roman Empire, which was also known as Byzantine Empire, could survive until that Istanbul was conquered by Ottoman Empire despite the fact that it was harassed by Catholic Europe many times and especially init was occupied and plundered by IV.
Ages had been the period of wealth, prosperity, justice and construction for Islamic geography. The conquest of Andalusia and the civilization constructed there by Muslims played an important role in rise of Europe. People rather than Muslims who were living peacefully in Andalusia also got their share of Spanish atrocity. As it is known, Ottoman Empire hosted the Sephardic Jews expelled from this geography.
Since the 15th century, which is accepted as the end of the Middle Ages and beginning of the Modern Ages, Europeans started to be in for colonization. European states establishing colonies in continents of Asia, Africa and America, gained a serious amount of wealth via exploitation of people and raw material there.
In consequence of this wealth and novelties brought by Renaissance, Reform, Enlightenment, Industrial Revolution and French Revolution were actualized in Europe. Europe owes its relative wealth and prosperity today to the occupation and colony empires that it established at that time. While European states continued persecution far from their own continent, there were bloody wars due to civil war in the continent.
This war broke out due to two basic reasons; first, the necessity of re-designing the balance of power in Europe since Germany established its political unity and took part in political arena, second, idea of nationalism which was intensifying in the 19th century and affecting the states spread over wide multi-national areas such as Ottoman and AustriaHungarian Empire.
After the First World War, racist regimes came to power in Europe. Racist and aggressive attitudes which intensified by the accession of Benito Mussolini in Italy inof Adolf Hitler in Germany inand of Francisco Franco in Spain inbecame the cornerstones of the Second World War.
In fact, the Second World War happened with brutality lacking humanity between Within six years, 65 million people died who were mostly composed of civilians and soldiers from outside of Europe. Two World Wars, which occurred in the first half of the 20th century, were wars that European states tried to establish dominance both in the continent and international arena.
After the death of so many people, Europe agreed upon the necessity of establishing a union and thus European Union, which crackles today, was formed in such an environment. Relations of Islam with Europe date back to old times as the history of Islam.
During first centuries following the death of the Prophet Muhammad, south part of Europe was conquered by Muslim Umayyad armies. Ottoman Empire moved as far as the inner parts of Europe by capturing Balkans in the 14th and 15th centuries.
Along with the failure of Ottomans by Austrian armies at the siege of Vienna, progress of Ottomans in Europe stopped in Experiences of Andalusia in the 8th and 9th centuries should not be forgotten.
At this period, Andalusian Muslims in Europe attempted to construct a civilization in terms of society, politics, art and technic. Eurostat, Migrants in Europe: A statistical portrait of the first and second generation, Publications Office of European Union, Pariss. This slaughter was not limited to Muslims, because Jews were exposed to a similar treatment in s. This process continued throughout 70s, 80s, 90s, and acquired a different dimension.
It is necessary to evaluate the immigrant population in Europe in the context of colonial activities and bilateral relations developed in result of these activities.
For instance; a large portion of immigrants in France is from Maghreb countries like Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia; in the Netherlands it is from India; and in England, it is from old colonies like Pakistan and Bangladesh.
Unqualified and cheap labor requirement of Europe pawed the way for the intense movement of many people to cities instead of the countryside of Europe. Immigrants in Germany come together in cities like Berlin, Cologne, Frankfurt, Munich, Stuttgart and Dortmund; in the Netherlands they come together in Amsterdam, and Utrecht; in France they come together around the Alps.
The first migrant workers were mostly dominated by male, and the basic reason of these migrations, which generally took place with intentions of returning back in short period of time, was economic concerns. For instance; if Gastarbeiter migrant worker programme in Germany is taken into account, it can be seen that workers coming from Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Tunisia, Yugoslavia and mainly from Turkey came first for two years of work and later on this intention was transformed into long-term permanent citizenship policy.
A statistical portrait of the first and second generation, Publications Office of European Union, Paris,p. In the middle of s, restrictions were introduced for migrant workers for coming to Europe due to economic stagnation related with magnitude of migrations.
Attentions were shifted towards continuation of social infrastructure as healthy and coherent. Because, issues of a settled immigrant population and cultural identity of this population which would be kept through generations started to appear. In s, many of the immigrants were from exYugoslavia or they were refugees from Somalia.
Some of these countries gave citizenship to significant amount of Muslims. Muslim population in Europe constantly increases though with less speed than before. Discrimination and Islamophobia, a, s. Discrimination and Islamophobia, a, p.
Discrimination Against Muslims in Europe, Londras. Hatem Bazian from California University, he explained the reasons of the existence of millions of people who came from outside the continent to Europe as follows: Migration door to Europe was opened during the colonial period and it stayed open until today.
The main reason of this migration was intense poorness and economic failures in homelands of the immigrants. Moreover, their homelands continue to be dependent on structural postcolonial control and utilization by colonies as source for raw material, cheap labor force and captive markets. Furthermore, due to borders established during colonial period and kept in post-colonial period, instability and conflicts lasting between majority and minority groups in these countries gave opportunity for interference to old colonial powers which are also the primary sources of weapons sold to the regimes in these 4 Amnesty International, Choice and Prejudges: Discrimination Against Muslims in Europe, London,p.
We can easily say that after removing their soldiers, colonialist powers took structural steps in order to ruin political, economic, educational, social and religious cooperation in South in future. Thus, they can establish indirect control on these lands in future. It sosylooji often asked from us to say that colonization is ended and we should forget it, but in reality, colonization has never ended, and its shadows continue to survive on South, especially in its economic and political structure.
Migration to Europe, which identifies people according to their religious identities and behaves them accordingly at the expense of the principle of secularism, continued even further during the process of occupations of Afghanistan and Iraq started under the leadership of the U. Besides internal conflicts in Syria and Iraq, Muslim population of countries like Afghanistan and Somalia which are destabilized are the main reasons of recent migrations.
Hatem Bazian made in Paris on It is also necessary to search through veyel linguistic use of this concept in Europe in order to understand it better.