Selections from the “Historia rerum anglicarum” of William of Newburgh, by Charles Johnson, M. A. by William, of Newburgh, ?;. He is famous for composing the Historia rerum Anglicarum between and The Historia is composed of three books. The first book covers the period. William of Newburgh or Newbury also known as William Parvus, was a 12th- century English William’s major work was Historia rerum Anglicarum or Historia de rebus anglicis (“History of English Affairs”), a history of England from to.
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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. William of Newburgh and the Historia rerum Anglicarum: Rrrum measure of a good historian? William of Newburgh and his sources 29 Chapter 4: To Llinos, for putting up with ahglicarum rants and suffering through drinking copious amounts of tea and wine with me. To Michael, for understanding how I can get distracted by random scientific ventures whilst working on my history, and for also making things seem a little less stressful.
Angliczrum Alexander, I would like to thank you for supporting me through everything, for stopping me worrying so much over my dissertation so I could actually write it, and for never failing to cheer me up when I get stressed out, or down about work. This is for you. William of Newburgh was an Augustinian canon who was born in and died in, or afterafter spending most of his life at the priory at Newburgh.
He is famous for composing the Historia rerum Anglicarum between and The Historia is composed of three books. The first book covers the period from to The second book narrates the reign of Henry II, from his accession in to The fourth book takes us to and the fifth finishes quite suddenly in Maygiving the impression that Newburgh died while still working on his chronicle.
William of Newburgh and the Historia appears to be anglicagum in a unanimous high regard amongst historians. The History of English Affairs: Kennedy, Warminster,p. Gransden, Historical Writing in England c. In doing this I hope to be able to conclude whether or not Newburgh and the Historia really are a reliable source for this period, as the reputation has us believe.
From this we know that William was commissioned by Ernald, abbot of Rievaulx d. Taylor, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography: The reason why Newburgh was specifically chosen to undertake the task of composing the Historia appears to be due to the fact that he was granted leisure time due to his illnesses and he also found writing historical narrative to be far less taxing than philosophy for example. This commissioned project by Ernald enabled a type of shared workload to form between both monastic houses, comprising of shared reading and discussion of historical works and a borrowing historical books from each other.
This means that Newburgh would have not composed the Historia with a lack of historical knowledge, but in fact was in a much enriched environment perfect to compose a historical chronicle.
Kennedy call the most animated part of the Historia. The period which both Geoffrey and Newburgh wrote in was strongly influenced by Rhetoric and romance literature,13 so when Geoffrey of Monmouth published his Historia regum Britanniae init was met with great love and enthusiasm by historical writers, and some, such as Gervase of Canterbury and Ralph Diceto, took it to be truth.
His history, however, is rarely to be found, for few persons care either to transcribe or possess it – his style being so coarse and unpolished: Stevenson, London,p. I believe, however, a more likely agenda which is present within the Prologue, if any, is that which is expressed by Antonia Gransden later on in her career.
Studies in Celtic History. He was prone to concupiscence, and exceeded the conjugal limit, maintaining in this uistoria practice of his ancestors; yet to his grandfather he yielded the palm in anglucarum of this kind.
He lived with the queen a sufficient time to raise a progeny; but when she ceased to conceive, he fell into voluptuousness, reeum had illegitimate offspring. He delighted in the enjoyment of hunting, as much as his grandfather did, and more than was right, yet he was more mild than his grandfather in punishing transgressors of the forest laws … He encouraged, more than was right, a nation perfidious and hostile to Christians, that is anlicarum say, the Jews, on account of the great advantages which he received from their usuries: He especially honoured religious men; and 29 Ibid, p.
He was born in London, and was named William, having a surname derived from his Long Beard, which he had thus cherished in order that he might by this token, as by a distinguished symbol, appear conspicuous in meetings and public assemblies.
ihstoria He was of ready wit, moderately skilled in literature, and eloquent beyond measure; and wishing, from a certain innate insolence of disposition and manner, to make himself a great name, he began to scheme new enterprises, and to venture upon the achievement of mighty plans.
Watson edsChristians and Jews in Angevin England: Keene, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography: William fitz Osbert, http: Longbeard, however, was surrounded by his mob of followers and slew one of those sent to capture him, with his own axe, before fleeing to the church of St- Mary-le-Bow.
Here Longbeard did not seek sanctuary within the holy establishment, but instead used it as a make shift fortress, until he was smoked out. Unfortunately, however, Newburgh shows, very obviously, clear resentment and possibly hatred histtoria Longbeard. It means that Newburgh most likely exaggerated events anglicsrum details to make his intended audience resent Longbeard as he did, and may have also omitted certain pieces of information to refrain Longbeard from looking admirable for championing the poor of London.
Throughout the twelfth century many European monarchs asserted the claim that they had legal jurisdiction of Jews within their territories, however during this period, it was only the English monarchy that established sole protection over its Jewish communities, while also appointing the crown as the sole judicial arbiter concerning legal cases which involved both Hlstoria and Jews.
For those enemies of the truth were on the watch, lest, perchance, the prosperity which they had enjoyed under the preceding monarch should smile upon them less favourably under the new king; and they wished that his first acts should be honoured by them in the most becoming manner, thinking than undiminished favour would be secured by ample gifts.
But whether it was histoeia they were less acceptable to him than to his father, or whether he was on his guard against them, from some cause, of which I am ignorant, through a superstitious precaution, advised by certain persons, he forbade them by a proclamation, advised by certain persons, he forbade them by a proclamation, it is said to enter the church while he was being crowned, or to enter the palace while the banquet was being held after the solemnity of the coronation.
After the celebration of the mass was finished, the king, glorious in his diadem, and with a magnificent procession, went to the banquet; but it happened that, when he was sitting down with all the assembly of the nobility, the people who were watching about the palace, began to crowd in. The Jews, who had mingled with the crowd, were thus driven within the doors of the palace. At this, a certain Christian was indignant and remembering the royal proclamation against them, he endeavoured, as it is said, to drive away a Jew from the door, and struck him with his hand.
Aroused at this example, many more began to beat the Jews back with contempt, and a tumult arose. The lawless and furious mob, thinking that the king had commanded it; and supported them, as they thought, by his royal authority, rushed like the rest upon the magnitude of Jews who stood watching at the door of the palace. Yet the raging Historai did not go quietly away, but with perverse fury and violence began to attack the church, to break the rerhm open, and drag the fugitive out for slaughter.
Roger of Howden d. Vincent edsHenry II: New Interpretations, Woodbridge,pp. When looking at the fact that Newburgh may have also depended heavily on the Vulgate of St Jerome, and the Bellum Judaicum of Josephus, for his account of the Jewish massacres,84 this also brings problems regarding reliability to light.
Here Vincent explains that while Josephus was conveying the message of liberty and the power of Rome, Newburgh was emphasising the merciless nature of the Christians when they forced the Jewish to renounce their religion.
However, yistoria looking at the fact that Josephus was a widely known text in twelfth century England,87 it can be speculated that Newburgh was instead trying to use a classical reference in an attempt to convey the message that what occurred at York was not Christian and was most shocking. If it was that Newburgh was simply trying to add more excitement into the account by adding a well- received piece of literature into the Historia, and slightly tweaking it, Newburgh reliability 83 Ibid.
When looking at the more likely theory that Newburgh was simply using a classical reference to further emphasise his point however, this would not affect his reliability as a source that much, as although the narrative he duplicated would most likely not have occurred, the fact that it is a classical reference lessons the blow somewhat as this was a common technique for historians of this period to use within their writing.
Lastly when looking at Newburgh accounts of the Jewish massacres it is important to note that some historians, such as M. Kennedy, have pointed out that Newburgh displayed anti- Semitic views within his accounts. When looking at the ongoing crusading fever that was occurring uistoria the time however, along with the fact that at the end of the day William of Newburgh was a devout Christian, like majority of other contemporary chroniclers of this period, this was not an unusual trait for a chronicler to have and as a historian of this period, one expects to be mindful of this thus reducing its impact on the reliability of the source.
Finally when looking at the historical skills William of Newburgh shows within the Historia, it is important to mention, as Anglivarum Taylor does, that Newburgh did make some mistakes within his Historia, such as dating errors.
Taylor, for example brings up the example that Newburgh was six years out for the date of the Council of Oxford in Proceedings of the Battle Conference, Woodbridge,p. The liberal arts, however, were not defined until the Romans, recognising the importance of the arts for an orator when preparing speeches, defined the liberal arts into three groups, with the first being the most important and basic.
The first group concerned the arts of Grammar, Rhetoric, and Dialectic, the second; Geometry, Arithmetic, Astronomy and Music, and the third; Medicine and Architecture. Joseph, The Trivium the liberal arts of logic, grammar, and rhetoric: Understanding the nature and function of language, ed and translated.
McGlinn, Philadelphia,p. Cicero proclaimed that an argument establishes faith in something that is otherwise in doubt, and cannot produce belief unless propositions have been used to signify whether something is true or false.
A clear example of William of Newburgh using this model for arguing a case can be seen in his critique of Geoffrey of Monmouth in the preface of book I.
He is called Geoffrey, surnamed Arthur, from having given, in a Latin version, the fabulous exploits of Arthur drawn from the traditional fictions of the Britons, with additions of his ownand endeavoured to dignify them with the name of authentic eerum moreover, he has unscrupulously promulgated the mendacious predictions of one Merlin, as if they were genuine prophecies, corroborated by indubitable truth, to which also he histria himself considerably added during the process of translating them into Latin.
Barney, et al, Cambridge,p. Rhetoric and the Writing of History, — Manchester,p. There is evidence that William of Newburgh Ibid, p. Other contemporary chroniclers, however, such as Robert of Torigni, do not. Having done the deed, and retiring as if triumphant, they departed with unhallowed joy. The Chronicles of Robert De Monte, eds. Stevenson, Llanerch,p.
On entering angliarum chapter hostoria the monks, he prostrated himself on the ground, and with the utmost humility entreated pardon; and, at his urgent petition, he, though so great a man, was corporally beaten with rods by all the brethren in succession.
Oxford, anhlicarum, p. The classical who taught rhetoric and those who used were undoubtedly aware of its potential damage to the recording and preservation of history. Regardless of this however, Seneca and Quintilian believed that if a few well-placed lies could keep the reader entertained, this helped to preserve historical narrative.
According to Quintilian, if the writer was virtuous, and their lies helped serve the histoira, this was permissible as anglicafum effect it would cause was generally advantageous. Do ye, oh, poor: For I will divide the waters from the waters.
The people are the waters. I will divide the humble from the haughty and treacherous. I will separate the elect from the reprobate, as light from darkness. This reduces his reliability as it means that in some cases Newburgh believed an interesting account to be more important than a historical account, meaning that he was more liable to include false information is his historical accounts, or even decide to omit boring events from the Historia in order to keep it interesting.
William of Newburgh and his sources: Many historians including Gransden, Partner and Taylor, tend to believe that these are the sources Newburgh used, whereas John Gillingham believes that though the speculation that Histora used Richard of Devizes and Jordan Fantosme is rermu, it is more likely that Newburgh used Gerald of Wales while being aware of the contemporary works of Robert of Torigni, Ailred of Rievaulx, William of Malmesbury, Henry of Huntingdon, and Roger of Howden, rather than the use of the other works suggested by Howlett.
When addressing his use of Bede c. During his royal service, Howden undertook many different royal duties, from acting as an itinerant justice of reerum forest inandconcerning himself with the elections of the English monasteries inand also going on a diplomatic mission to Galloway in Corner, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography: