El presente libro da a conocer el gran misterio de la biblia desenterrada propuesta por Arqueólogos by shernandez_ La Biblia Desenterrada by Israel Finkelstein, , available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide. The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology’s New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts, a book published in , discusses the archaeology of.
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Archaeology’s New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Textsa book published indiscusses the archaeology of Israel and its relationship to the origins and content of the Hebrew Bible.
The methodology applied by the authors is historical criticism with an emphasis on archaeology. Writing in the website of “The Bible and Interpretation”, the authors describe their approach as one “in which the Bible is one of the most important artifacts and cultural achievements [but] not the unquestioned narrative framework into which every archaeological find must be fit.
As noted by a reviewer on Salon. Ze’ev Herzogprofessor of archaeology at Tel Aviv Universitywrote a cover story for Haaretz in in which he reached similar conclusions following the same methodology; Herzog noted also that some of these findings have been accepted by the majority of biblical scholars and archaeologists for years and even decades, even though they have only recently begun to make a dent in the awareness of the general public.
Early biblical archaeology was conducted with the presumption that the Bible must be true, finds only being considered as illustrations for the biblical narrative, and interpreting evidence to fit the Bible. Some archaeologists such as Eilat Mazar continue to take this “Bible and spade” approach, or, like the journal Bible and Spadeattempt to treat archaeology as a tool for proving the Bible’s accuracy, [ citation needed ] but since the s most archaeologists, such as prominent Egyptologist Kenneth Kitchen [ original research?
The Bible Unearthed begins by considering what it terms the ‘preamble’ of the Bible—the Book of Genesis —and its relationship to archaeological evidence for the context in which its narratives are set. Archaeological discoveries about society and culture in the ancient Near East lead the authors to point out a number of anachronisms, suggestive that the narratives were actually set down in the 9th—7th centuries: The book comments that this corresponds with the documentary hypothesisin which textual scholarship argues for the majority of the first five biblical books being written between the 8th and 6th centuries.
The book remarks that, despite modern archaeological investigations and the meticulous ancient Egyptian records from the period of Ramesses IIthere is an obvious lack of any archaeological evidence for the migration of a band of semitic people across the Sinai Peninsula except for the Hyksos.
Although the Hyksos are in some ways a good match, their main centre being at Avaris later renamed ‘Pi-Ramesses’in the heart of the region corresponding to the ‘land of Goshen’, and Manetho later writing that the Hyksos eventually founded the Temple in Jerusalem it throws up other problems, as the Hyksos became not slaves but rulers, and they were chased away rather than chased to bring them back.
Finkelstein and Silberman argue that instead of the Israelites conquering Canaan after the Exodus as suggested by the book of Joshuamost of them had in fact always been there; the Israelites were simply Canaanites who developed into a distinct culture.
The authors take issue with the book of Joshua ‘s depiction of the Israelites conquering Canaan in only a few years—far less than the lifetime of one individual—in which cities such as HazorAiand Jerichoare destroyed. Finkelstein and Silberman view this account as the result of the telescoping effect of the vagaries of folk memory about destruction caused by other events;  modern archaeological examination of these cities shows that their destruction spanned a period of many centuries, with Hazor being destroyed to years after Jericho,  [ citation needed ] while Ai whose name actually means ‘the ruin’ was completely abandoned for roughly a millennium “before the collapse of Late Bronze Canaan.
Like Jericho, there was no settlement at the time of its supposed conquest by the children of Israel. Although the book of Samueland initial parts of the books of Kingsportray SaulDavid and Solomon ruling in succession over a powerful and cosmopolitan united kingdom of Israel and JudahFinkelstein and Silberman regard modern archaeological evidence as showing that this may not be true.
Archaeology instead shows that in the time of Solomon, the northern kingdom of Israel was quite small, too poor to be able to pay for a vast army, and with too little bureaucracy to be able to administer a kingdom, certainly not an empire;  it only emerged later, around the beginning of the 9th century BCE, in the time of Omri.
There are remains of once grand cities at MegiddoHazor and Gezerwith archeological evidence showing that they suffered violent destruction. The Tel Dan Stelethe Mesha Stelethe Black Obelisk of Shalmaneserand direct evidence from excavations, together paint a picture of the Omride kings ruling a rich, powerful, and cosmopolitan empire, stretching from Damascus to Moab and building some of the largest and most beautiful constructions of Iron Age Israel;  by contrast, the Bible only remarks that the Omrides ‘married foreign women’ presumably to make alliances and upheld Canaanite religion, both of which it regards as wicked.
The Book of Kings, as it stands today, seems to suggest that the religion of Israel and Judah was primarily monotheistic, with one or two wayward kings such as the Omrides who tried to introduce Canaanite polytheism, the people occasionally joining in this ‘apostasy’ from monotheism, but a close reading and the archaeological record reveals that the opposite was true.
Judah was flooded with refugees; the population of Israel had been nine times larger than that of Judah, so many small Judean villages suddenly became cities,  archaeology evidencing that the population of Jerusalem itself expanded by about fold, turning it from a small hilltown into a large city.
By BCE, the Assyrians had captured most of Judah, and then they besieged Jerusalem ; the Bible’s coverage of the events leading up to the siege is sparse, briefly listing only a few refortifications of Jerusalem, giving a passing mention to the Siloam tunneland briefly admitting to the loss of most of Judah’s cities, but archaeology gives much more detail. For example, the fortifications of Lachish were heavily strengthened by Hezekiah,  but it was besieged, fell, and was then burnt to the ground; according to an illustration on the walls of the Assyrian palace at Ninevahthe Assyrians deported the city’s population and religious objects before they burnt it.
The Bible claims that nearlymen in the army besieging Jerusalem were slaughtered one night by an angelcausing the Assyrian king Sennacherib to relent and return to Assyria; it immediately goes on to state that Sennacherib was killed by his sons, while he was praying to his god, implying that this was shortly after the battle.
However, as The Bible Unearthed points out, this contrasts with the Assyrian record on the Taylor Prism in which Hezekiah’s mercenaries abandoned him, and he only then convinced the Assyrian army to leave by handing over not only vast amounts of money, jewels, and high quality ivory-inlaid furniture, but also his own daughters, harem, and musicians, and making Judah into a tributary state of the Assyrians.
Hezekiah predeceased Sennacherib, dying just a couple of years after the siege. His successor and sonManassehreversed the religious changes, re-introducing religious pluralism; Finkelstein and Silberman suggest that this may have been an attempt to gain co-operation from village elders and clans, so that he would not need so much centralised administration, and could therefore allow the countryside to return to economic autonomy.
Hezekiah’s actions had given away the gold and silver from the Jerusalem Temple impoverished his state, lost him his own daughters and concubines,  and reduced his territory to a small region around Jerusalem, most of the people elsewhere in Judah being deported; Manasseh had brought peace and prosperity back to the country,  but because the Book of Kings bases its decisions on theological prejudice, it condemns him as the most sinful monarch ever to rule Judah and hails instead Hezekiah as the great king.
As recorded in the Book of Kings, Manasseh’s grandson, Josiahenacted a large religious reform soon after he became king; he ordered renovations to the Jerusalem Temple, during which the High Priest ‘found’ a scroll of the lawwhich insisted on monotheism with sacrifice centralised at a single temple—that in Jerusalem.
Finkelstein and Silberman note that most scholars regard the core of Deuteronomy as being the “scroll of the law” in question, and regard it as having been written not long before it was ‘found’, rather than being an ancient missing scroll as characterised in the Bible;  Deuteronomy is strikingly similar to early 7th century Assyrian vassal -treaties, in which are set out the rights and obligations of a vassal state in this case Judah to their sovereign in this case, Yahweh.
The sudden collapse of the Assyrian Empire in the last decades of the 7th century BCE offered an opportunity for Josiah to expand Judah’s territory into the former kingdom of Israel, abandoned by the Assyrians.
Archaeology suggests that Josiah was initially successful, extending his territory northwards towards Bethela cult-centre of the kingdom of Israel;  however he then rode out to meet the Egyptian Pharaoh— Necho —at Meggido. Necho had been merely ‘passing through’, leading an army to join the Assyrian civil war on the side of the Assyrian rather than Babylonian faction,  but Josiah was killed; the circumstances of his death are uncertain, though the Book of Chronicles claims that despite Necho’s lack of enmity for Josiah, Josiah insisted on attacking him.
Finkelstein and Silberman suggest that Necho may have objected to Josiah’s expansionist policies, which could have threatened the Egyptian dominance of the region to the west of Judah the Philistine lands or of the strategically important Jezreel Valley to its north, or could equally have objected to the effect of the new deuteronomic social policies on the caravan routes, which ran through southern Judah.
With Josiah’s death Egypt became suzerain over Judah. The new king, Egypt’s vassal ruler, undid Josiah’s changes, restoring the former shrines and returning the country once again to religious pluralism. But when the Babylonian faction eventually won the Assyrian civil war, they set out to forcibly retake the former Assyrian tributaries.
Judah, as a loyal Egyptian vassal-state, resisted, with disastrous consequences: In BCE, the Achaemenids conquered Babylon, and, in accordance with their Zoroastrian perspective, allowed the people deported by the Babylonians to return; this is described by the Cyrus Cylinderwhich also indicates that the Persians repaired the temples in these conquered lands, returning any sacred artifacts to them.
The conflict between the returnees and those who had always been in Judah evidently required resolution; the two groups had to be reintegrated. Finkelstein and Silberman argue that the Deuteronomic law advanced by parts of the deported elite the ancestors of the returnees and the laws and legends of the inveterate inhabitants, were melded together into a single Torah so that it could form a central authority able to unite the population.
The Bible Unearthed was well received by some biblical scholars and archaeologists and critically by others. Baruch Halpernprofessor of Jewish Studies at Pennsylvania State University and leader of the archaeological digs at Megiddo for many years, praised it as “the boldest and most exhilarating synthesis of Bible and archaeology in fifty years”,  and Jonathan Kirschwriting in the Los Angeles Timescalled it “a brutally honest assessment of what archeology can and cannot tell us about the historical accuracy of the Bible”, which embraces the spirit of modern archaeology by approaching the Bible “as an artifact to be studied and evaluated rather than a work of divine inspiration that must be embraced as a matter of true belief”.
Kenneth Kitchen was critical, writing that “[A] careful critical perusal of this work—which certainly has much to say about both archaeology and the biblical writings—reveals that we are dealing very largely with a work of imaginative fiction, not a serious or reliable account of the subject”, and “Their treatment of the exodus is among the most factually ignorant and misleading that this writer has ever read.
Thus the book is ideologically driven and controlled. A review of the book by fellow archeologist William G. Dever published in the Biblical Archaeology Review and subsequently in the Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Researchresulted in heated exchanges between Dever and Finkelstein. Dever’s review noted that the book had many strengths, notably archaeology’s potential for re-writing the history of “Ancient Israel”, but complained that viblia misrepresented his own views and concluded by characterizing Finkelstein as “idiosyncratic and doctrinaire”; Finkelstein’s reaction was to call Dever a “jealous academic parasite,” and the debate quickly degenerated from that point.
The book became a bestseller within its field. In FebruaryAmazon.
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Dust-jacket for The Bible Unearthed. Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman. Finkelstein and Silberman have themselves written a provocative book that bears the marks of a detective story.
In juxtaposing the biblical record and archaeological data, they work with tantalizing fragments of a distant past. Assembling clues to argue their thesis requires bold imagination and disciplined research. The Biblix Unearthed exhibits both in abundance. Imagination invariably exceeds the evidence; research makes plausible the reconstruction. Fortunately, the book does not achieve its goal: What actually happened and what a people thought happened belong to a single historical process.
That understanding leads to a sobering thought. Stories of exodus from oppression and conquest of land, stories of exile and return and stories of triumphal vision are eerily contemporary. If history is written for the present, are we doomed to repeat the past?