Porque líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) está em contato direto com o espaço extracelular do cérebro, que proporciona um reflexo das mudanças bioquímicas . do parasito ou de fragmentos de sua parede no liqüido cefalorraquidiano. (LCR) já fora referido em fins do século passado (Hartmann) e no início deste (Stertz). No Brasil o estudo do líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) como arsenal . de São Paulo in , created his own CSF laboratory, known as Senne Liquor, which is .
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Analysis on cerebrospinal fluid CSF in neurological diagnosis has always been considered to be a strong point among the main complementary cefalorrwquidiano in Brazil.
The present paper reviews the main events in the history of CSF in the neurological sciences, with emphasis on the founders of several CSF schools in our country from the beginning of the 20 th century to the present time. The first evidence of fluid inside the brain cavities is found in Edwin Smith’s surgical papyrus, probably written in the 17 th century BC.
In the 6 th century BC, Hippocrates carried out the first postmortem ventricle access by needle in a case of hydrocephalus. It was only in that Vesalius published the first information that lkquor brain ventricles are filled with an aqueous fluid. InCotugno presented the first description of brain ventricles and the subarachnoid space, after studying them in 20 cadavers subjected to lumbar puncture and anatomical dissections.
Inafter the initial studies on access to the cisterna magna in animals, Magendie gave the name cerebrospinal fluid CSF to the liquid found in the ventricle cavities and subarachnoid space.
Inin Germany, Quincke started a new era in studies on CSF, carrying out the first in vivo lumbar puncture with measurements of intracranial pressure.
He used a needle and a scalpel, which were cefalofraquidiano to the needles currently used for puncture. This was the time when CSF puncture turned daily practice for diagnostic purposes.
Quincke’s studies on CSF included cytomorphological analysis, protein assay, spinal glucose levels and bacteriological examination. Within a short period of time, CSF examinations became common in other European countries.
At the beginning of the 20 th century, several studies were published regarding CSF. InMestrezat published the first book about the CSF examination for many cefalorraquidiank diseases, and this became an essential reference point worldwide.
Suboccipital puncture was carried out in vivo for the first time by Obregia inbut its use in neurological practice following precise recommendations only began after Ayer’s studies in 1 – 4. Miguel Couto, in Rio de Janeiro incarried out the first lumbar puncture in a patient at Hospital de Misericordia, in that city.
In the same year, Waldomiro Pires, also in Rio de Janeiro, became the greatest exponent of cisternal puncture in our country, together with Cerqueira da Luz. Inthey reported that they had performed more than punctures using the cisternal approach. Waldomiro Pires was probably the person who contributed the most in the whole world towards definitive inclusion of cisternal puncture in daily practice.
Oswaldo Lange dedicated himself to studies and clinical research on CSF. He learned the technique for cisternal puncture in Rio de Janeiro inwith Cerqueira da Luz. In Octoberhe started cefalorraquiidiano in his own CSF specialized laboratory. InLange was confirmed as the greatest specialist in CSF in our country when he published the first Brazilian book on the subject: Lange founded Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria inand was its Editor for 44 years. He passed away after completing issue 4 of volume 44, in Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria was the climax of his work and remained his greatest passion.
He was responsible for the creation of a subspecialty on CSF in that medical school. He was the first resident in neurology at that medical school.
Already during his residence, he attended Oswaldo Lange’s CSF laboratory and learned the techniques and details of the examination. Within two years, they were married and remained together till cefalorraquidiajo end of their lives. Together with great charisma, they attended all CSF meetings in Brazil and abroad. From that time onwards, they became very good friends. This subject became his main line of research.
With the establishment of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology ABNhe was accepted as a titular member in and was elected President for the period He was the ABN Delegate to the World Federation of Neurology for eight yearsand participated in all its congresses and meetings. He received many doctors to learn in his laboratory and created a large number of disciples who spread their knowledge on this field in their original localities in the country.
He worked every day of his life in the laboratory that carries his name until the May 17,when he passed away. The latter continues cetalorraquidiano be active as the present supervisor of that laboratory. Gilberto Bassi and Marcelo Fortuna Santiago were his disciples. She presented her doctor degree thesis on neurocryptococcosis.
She still remains as the head of that laboratory. After his passing away, the laboratory was supervised by Taciana Antunes, who later associated with Solange Dorneles Mesquita.
They both still work in that unit. He is now the greatest specialist on neuroschistosomiasis in Brazil and coordinates his own CSF laboratory in Salvador. Other Brazilian states have also been able to count on collaboration from medical doctors responsible for CSF units for many decades. These services are integrated with general clinical analysis laboratories, and therefore, their participation has not cefalorraquiriano specified in the present paper.
Cerebrospinal fluid in disease of the nervous system.
There is no conflict of interest to declare. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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Historical Note The history of cerebrospinal fluid analysis in Brazil. How to cite this article.